By Lanning B. Kline, MD
A patient-centered method of the analysis and remedy of significant neuro-ophthalmic stipulations. targeting vital featuring signs, this e-book leads the reader in the course of the occasionally refined manifestations of neuro-ophthalmic sickness to anatomic localization of lesions and definitive analysis. additionally comprises an outline of the anatomy of the visible pathway, guidance for engaging in the neuro-ophthalmic exam and acceptable use of diagnostic imaging stories.
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Extra info for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 5: Neuro-Ophthalmology (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
Used with permission from Kline LB. Bajandas FJ Neuro-Ophthalmology RePPC = posterior begins in the striate cortex (Vl) and projects view Manual. Rev 5th ed. Thorofare. ) 32 . Neuro-Ophthalmology Efferent Visual System (Ocular Motor Pathways) The efferent visual system also spans a large segment of the central nervous system. The output of the vestibular nuclei provides both the major infranuclear input into ocular motility and the major tonic input into eye position. This system has one of the shortest arcs in the nervous system, producing a fast response with extremely short latency.
The structures in this area, largely through the brachium conjunctivum, are responsible for adjusting the gain of all ocular movements. Gain may be defined as the output divided by the input. For example, keeping the eyes stable in space while the head rotates requires the eyes to move in a direction opposite that of head rotation at the same velocity and distance; this would be considered a gain of 1. The cerebellum is involved in gain adjustment to allow compensation after peripheral lesions (eg, vestibular nerve dysfunction such as vestibular neuritis).
8, Anterolateral view. A, Lateral 1: Neuro-Ophthalmic view of venous drainage Anatomy. of the orbit (Continues) 21 and 22 . Neuro-Ophthalmology Figure 1-10 C. Superficial venous structures of the eyelid. Key: acv = anterior collateral vein; afv = anterior facial vein; av = angular vein; crv = central retinal vein; cs = cavernous sinus; iopv = inferior ophthalmic vein; iov = infraorbital vein; ipv = inferior palpebral vein; ir = inferior root of superior ophthalmic vein; Iv = lacrimal vein; mb = muscular branch; mcv = medial collateral vein; mopv = medial ophthalmic venous vein; nb = nasal branch; pp = pterygoid plexus; psav = posterior superior alveolar vein; sopv = superior ophthalmic vein; sov = supraorbital vein; spv = superior palpebral veins; sr = superior root of superior ophthalmic vein; stv = supratrochlear vein; vv = vena vorticosa (superior lateral and medial vorticose veins; inferior lateral and medial vorticose veins).