By American Academy of Ophthalmology, John Bryan Holds MD
Information the anatomy of the orbit and adnexa, and emphasizes a pragmatic method of the review and administration of orbital and eyelid problems, together with malpositions and involutional adjustments. Updates present info on congenital, inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and demanding stipulations of the orbit and accent constructions. Covers key facets of orbital, eyelid and facial surgery.
Upon final touch of part 7, readers could be capable to:
Describe the conventional anatomy and serve as of orbital and periocular tissues
Choose acceptable exam thoughts and protocols for diagnosing problems of the orbit, eyelids, and lacrimal system
Describe sensible and beauty symptoms within the surgical administration of eyelid and periorbital stipulations
Read or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 7: Orbit Eyelids and Lacrimal System PDF
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Additional resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 7: Orbit Eyelids and Lacrimal System
A lesion behind the equator of the globe is usually not palpable. • CHAPTER 2: Evaluation of Orbital Disorders • 25 pulsations of the eye are caused by t;ansmission of the vascular pulse through the orbit. This may result from either abnormal vascular flow or transmission of normal intracranial pulsations through a bony defect in the orbital walls. Abnormal vascular flow may be caused by arteriovenous communications, such as carotid cavernous or dural cavernous fistulas. Defects in the bony orbital walls may result from sinus mucoceles, surgical removal of bone, trauma, or developmental abnormalities, including encephalocele, meningocele, or sphenoid wing dysplasia (associated with neurofibromatosis).
Primary anophthalmia is rare and usually bilateral. It occurs when the primary optic vesicle fails to grow out from the cerebral vesicle at the 2-mm stage of embryonic development. Secondary anophthalmia is rare and lethal and results from a gross abnormality in the anterior neural tube. Consecutive anophthalmia presumably results from a secondary degeneration of the optic vesicle. Because orbital development is dependent on the size and growth of the globe, anophthalmic orbits are small, with hypoplastic eyelids and orbital adnexal structures.
B, Three-dimensional CT reconstruction of same patient. ) :a ,y n ,e B Figure 2-5 0 T1-weighted axial (Al and coronal (B) MR images of the orbit, with fat suppression . (Courtesy of Thomas Y Hwang, MO, PhD, and Timothy J. McCulley, MO ,) r- ~r k magnetization to realign itself along the original axis. T2, or transverse relaxation time, is the mean relaxation time based on the interaction of hydrogen nuclei within a given tissue, an indirect measure of the effect the nuclei have on each other. Each tissue has different proton density and Tl and T2 characteristics, providing the image contrast necessary to differentiate tissues.