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By Ernest Albee

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H ie important point is: Cum­ berland argues that altruism first appears as sexual love and the parental instinct to protect offspring. Having once arisen, there is no reason why it may not extend ever so much further. But in the latter part of the treatise, there is an interesting passage which should not be neglected. The author says: “No one does truly observe the law unless he sincerely propose the same end with the legislator. ” 74 There is a suggestion here that the individual first comes to act in an (objectively) altruistic way, because he finds that it conduces to his own happiness; but, this habit having been established, he comes to act for the common weal without any thought of self.

45 The first point to be established, then, is that there are Laws of Nature, in the legitimate sense of the words. Having in­ dicated his line of argument, which we shall consider later, Cumberland proceeds to the more characteristic and construc­ tive part of his doctrine. From a consideration of the practical propositions which may fairly be ranked as Laws of Nature,46 48 See p. 13. 44 See p. 14. 45 Ibid. 48 Cumberland nowhere attempts exhaustively to enumerate them. Richard Cumberland / 33 it appears that they may be reduced to one universal Law.

45 The first point to be established, then, is that there are Laws of Nature, in the legitimate sense of the words. Having in­ dicated his line of argument, which we shall consider later, Cumberland proceeds to the more characteristic and construc­ tive part of his doctrine. From a consideration of the practical propositions which may fairly be ranked as Laws of Nature,46 48 See p. 13. 44 See p. 14. 45 Ibid. 48 Cumberland nowhere attempts exhaustively to enumerate them. Richard Cumberland / 33 it appears that they may be reduced to one universal Law.

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