By M. Yavuz Corapcioglu
This booklet is the 3rd quantity of a chain: ''Advances in Porous Media''. Our target is to provide in-depth evaluate papers that provide accomplished insurance to the sector of shipping in porous media. This sequence treats shipping phenomena in porous media as an interdisciplinary subject. therefore, ''Advances in Porous Media'' will proceed to advertise the extension of ideas and purposes in a single quarter to others, slicing throughout conventional barriers. the target of every bankruptcy is to study the paintings performed on a selected subject together with theoretical, numerical in addition to experimental reports. The members of this quantity, as for prior ones, come from a number of backgrounds: civil and environmental engineering, and earth and environmental sciences. The articles are aimed toward all scientists and engineers in numerous different fields desirous about the basics and purposes of methods in porous media.
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Extra resources for Advances in Porous Media, Vol. 3
Third, if the NAPL is not toxic, bacteria may release emulsifying agents that could break the NAPL up into small droplets, creating a high NAPL/water interfacial area (Atlas, 1981). This could cause biodegradation rates to be much higher than would be predicted if the total surface area available to microorganisms is assumed to be the surface area of a single continuous interface, such as in an oil sUck floating on a water surface. It is not clear how these implications would actually affect predicted biodegradation rates.
1993). As pointed out by Lee et al. (1988), intra-particle diffusion can also have important effects on mixing, especially during high flow rates induced by pumping. Solutes may become trapped in dead-end pores or other areas of low permeabiUty during the relatively slow movement of groundwater before remediation begins. When water carrying nutrients for in-situ bioremediation is pumped through the aquifer, the water will tend to flow through the large pores and may not mix with the trapped solute.
Not only are reaction rates slower at lower temperatures, but the Arrehenius relation may not hold below temperatures of Iff'C, making predictions of reaction rates at lower temperatures difficult (Focht, 1988). Second, the effects of temperature on biodegradation are complex, since temperature affects not only biochemical reactions but also NAPL phase transfer and transport (Atlas, 1981). These points must be considered when modeling NAPL biodegradation. 5. pH Bacteria live in subsurface environments under a wide pH range.