By J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz
J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz compares the personalities and the respective careers of 2 of the best of the early Christian Fathers, Ambrose and John Chrysostom. whereas the statesmanlike Ambrose ended his existence as a pillar of the Western institution, Chrysostom, the outspoken idealist, died in exile. even though, their perspectives and beliefs have been remarakably comparable: either bishops have been interested by the social function of the Church, either have been made up our minds competitors of what they known as the Arian heresy, and every attracted a committed following between his city congregation. This similarity, Liebeschuetz argues, was once due to not the impression of 1 at the different, yet used to be a outcome in their participation in a Christian tradition which spanned the divide among the jap (later Byzantine) and Western components of the Roman Empire. The monastic flow figures during the e-book as an incredible effect on either males and as might be the main dynamic improvement within the Christian tradition of the fourth century.
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Tertullian does not allow that a desire to have children, or even the fact that children are needed to propagate the human race, could justify remarriage after the first marriage has been childless. He was never entirely consistent about marriage, but as he came under the influence of the Montanist movement he came close to condemning it altogether. The prophet Hosea had accused the Jewish people worshipping foreign idols as being guilty of adultery, implying that the relationship of Israel to God was that of marriage.
Virg. 9–11. Virgins lacking family resources might live with clergy or even with men dedicated to celibacy, see Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians, 369–70 and below, 156–8. 113 (IV ) CHRISTIAN ASCETICISM BECOMES A M ASS M OV E M E N T A N D I NS T I T U TI O NA L I ZE D: T H E RO LE O F AN TON Y In the fourth century the informal spontaneous full-time asceticism of earlier times began to be institutionalized. It became a movement. 115 At this stage I prefer to talk of ‘ascetic movement’ rather than ‘monastic movement’, of ‘ascete’ rather than ‘monk’.
Rousseau, Pachomius: The Making of a Community in Fourth-Century Egypt (Berkeley, 1985). 142 See Lorenz, ‘Die Anfa¨nge des abendla¨ndischen Mo¨nchtums im 4. Jahrhundert’, 45–61 on parallel rules in ascetic writings of Basil and Augustine and those of Pachomius. These are not necessarily evidence of direct influence. The similar problems in the running of a religious community called for similar rules everywhere. 143 Brown, The Body and Society, 113. 40 Background and Forerunners city of Hermopolis Parva (Damanhur), 65 km south of Alexandria.