By G. Hauke
This publication provides the principles of fluid mechanics and shipping phenomena in a concise method. it's appropriate as an advent to the topic because it includes many examples, proposed difficulties and a bankruptcy for self-evaluation.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena
12) The surface tension depends on the pair of substances that form the interface and on the temperature. When the surface tension is positive, the molecules of each phase tend to be repelled back to their own phase. This is the case, for instance, of two inmiscible liquids. When the surface tension is negative, the molecules of both phases tend to mix, like two miscible liquids. In the case of a liquid/gas interface, the surface tension tends to maintain the interface (or free surface) straight.
4 Streamlines, Trajectories and Streaklines 25 which implies C1 = x0 /e C2 = y0 /e Finally, the trajectory is given in parametric form through the combination of 2 x = e(t+1) −1 x0 y y0 = e(t−1) 2 −1 This is a valid curve in two dimensions. Sometimes it is possible to eliminate t and write the same curve in explicit form, that is, as y(x). Getting t from the ﬁrst equation, t ln xx0 + 1 − 1 = and substituting in the second one, y y0 √ ln =e x x0 +1−2 2 −1 which is the equation of the trajectory in explicit form.
6. For a liquid, the pressure is a mechanical variable. It can also be deﬁned as the average normal stress of the ﬂuid particle, technically speaking, the trace of the stress tensor. 7. For a gas, the pressure is a thermodynamic variable. In this case, the pressure cannot be deﬁned as the average normal stress of the ﬂuid particle. 1. 1. SI and non-SI common units of pressure. Name Symbol Equivalence pascal (SI) Pa 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 bar bar 1 bar = 105 Pa atmosphere (standard) atm 1 atm = 101 300 Pa meter of water mH2 O 1 mH2 O = 1 000g Pa millimeter of mercury mmHg kilogram-force per square centimeter (TS) kgf/cm 1 mmHg = 13 600g Pa 2 1 kgf/cm2 = 104 g Pa p p gag p atm p abs 0 Fig.