By Amos Nur
What if Troy used to be now not destroyed within the epic conflict immortalized via Homer? What if many mythical towns of the traditional international didn't meet their ends via conflict and conquest as archaeologists and historians think, yet actually have been laid waste by way of a strength of nature so catastrophic that religions and legends describe it because the wrath of god? Apocalypse brings the most recent clinical proof to endure on biblical debts, mythology, and the archaeological checklist to discover how historical and sleek earthquakes have formed history--and, for a few civilizations, probably heralded the top of the world.
Archaeologists are informed to hunt human reasons in the back of the ruins they research. due to this, the sophisticated clues that point out earthquake harm are frequently neglected or maybe neglected. Amos Nur bridges the distance that for too lengthy has separated archaeology and seismology. He examines tantalizing proof of earthquakes at a few of the world's most renowned archaeological websites within the Mediterranean and in different places, together with Troy, Jericho, Knossos, Mycenae, Armageddon, Teotihuacán, and Petra. He unearths what the Bible, the Iliad , and different writings can let us know in regards to the seismic calamities that can have rocked the traditional global. He even explores how earthquakes could have helped defend the useless Sea Scrolls. As Nur exhibits, spotting earthquake harm within the shifted foundations and toppled arches of old ruins is key at the present time as the clinical list of global earthquake hazards continues to be incomplete. Apocalypse explains the place and why old earthquakes struck--and may strike again.
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Extra resources for Apocalypse : earthquakes, archaeology, and the wrath of God
But seismic waves have also revealed less obvious information about the earth. When seismic waves pass through the earth, they encounter many different layers with different physical properties. Just as rays of light are bent or reflected when passing from air to glass, so, too, are seismic waves bent and reflected by structures with differing properties in the earth’s interior, and scientists have been able to analyze those distortions to map the earth’s layers. While the outermost layer of the earth, the lithosphere, is relatively rigid, a large part of the earth’s interior is soft enough to flow like a fluid over very long periods.
The focus of even a shallow earthquake is several kilometers below the earth’s surface. As the earthquake progresses, more and more of the fault breaks loose and begins to slip. In large earthquakes, the area of the fault that finally slips may be huge, extending hundreds of kilometers laterally and tens of kilometers into the earth. The part of the fault that slips may or may not extend as far upward as the earth’s surface. In other words, in small earthquakes, and even in some damaging ones, there may be no obvious evidence at the surface that one side of the fault slipped past the other.
Certainly, geologists and archaeologists have this in common: they can rarely prove their hypotheses. In fact, Karl Popper, one of the twentieth century’s most influential philosophers of science, asserted that this is a litmus test for science itself, that there is no way to prove a scientific hypothesis true; we can only prove that an idea is false when it is contradicted by evidence. indd 24 9/10/2007 7:55:19 AM K i n g A g a m e m n o n ’s C a p i t a l 25 those that made predictions that could be proven false if the ideas behind them were incorrect.