By Norman H. March
This crucial publication presents an advent to the liquid country. A qualitative description of liquid houses is first given, through certain chapters on thermodynamics, liquid constitution relating to interplay forces and delivery homes equivalent to diffusion and viscosity. remedy of complicated fluids equivalent to anisotropic liquid crystals and polymers, and of technically very important themes comparable to non-Newtonian and turbulent flows, is incorporated. floor houses and features of the liquid-vapour serious aspect also are mentioned. whereas the publication makes a speciality of classical beverages, the ultimate bankruptcy offers with quantal fluids.
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Additional info for Introduction to Liquid State Physics
9) equals 6itar]. Another solution is F(xpa2v2. 17) This does not involve viscosity but kinetic energy, the force being determined by the momentum of the incoming fluid. The laminar flow pattern in a pipe to which Poiseuille's law refers becomes turbulent when primary eddies get out of control before viscosity may quench them and start generating strings of further eddies. Experiments show that above the critical Reynolds number the pressure gradient needed to drive a fluid through a pipe increases more rapidly than linearly with the rate of flow Q.
15) It is dimensionless and the transition from streamlined to turbulent motion occurs when its value is around 1000 to 2000 (see Chap. 12 below). Turbulence is essentially a condition of instability and the force involved in flow is not necessarily a direct indication of whether or not turbulence has occurred. The force is determined primarily by viscous or inertial factors. A simple example of these two conditions is afforded by considering the steady movement of a solid sphere of radius a through a fluid.
This will suffice to introduce the reader to the account of the liquid-vapour interface given in Chap. 13. 1 Surface free energy and surface tension It is a well known fact that liquids have a tendency to draw up into drops. Small drops form in spherical geometry and because a sphere is that geometrical form which has the smallest ratio of surface area to volume, one may conclude that the surface of a liquid has higher energy than that of the bulk fluid. It is correct to say, then, that a liquid is always endeavouring to achieve its lowest energy configuration by reducing its surface area.